Author’s Correction. 


The ability of a material to take up moisture. 

Accordion Fold

A type of paper folding in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion effect. 


A transparent or translucent plastic sheet material of a variety of colours, used as a basis for artwork and overlays. 


The non-colours of black, white and grey. 

Additive Colours

In photographic reproduction, the primary colours of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colours. 


This refers to a manual process whereby an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to create a riffling effect that separates the sheets as they are fed to the printing press. 


Large white areas in a design layout. 


The position of elements on a page in relation to a referenced horizontal or vertical line. 

Alkali Blue

Also called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks and varnishes to improve luster. 


The blank space between columns of type, sometimes also called a gutter or column margin. 

Alphabet Length

The measured length (in points) of the lowercase alphabet of a certain size and series of type. 


An 11th century Italian script typeface. 

Antique Finish

Paper with a rough, sized surface used for book and cover stock. 


The white area at the margins of text or illustrations used to form a foldout. 


Those elements of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter, such as in “K” and “Y.” 


A symbol shaped like an arrowhead that is used in illustration to direct a leader line. Reference: leader line. 


All illustrated material (ornamentation, photos and charts, etc.) that is prepared for reproduction. 

As To Press

A term used for proofs that show the final page positioning of all graphical elements. 


Any part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body of the letter such as in “d”, “b” and “h.” 

Assembled View

In illustration, a term used to describe a view of a drawing in its assembled or whole format. 

Author's Alterations (AA's)

Changes made after composition stage where customer is responsible for additional charges. 


The light blue colour used in the nomenclature of “laid” and “wove” papers. 



An abbreviation for boldface; used to determine where boldface copy is to be used. Reference: boldface. 

Back Margin

The space between the edge of the type and the folded edge of the paper; also known as the binding margin. 

Back Step Collation

The collation of book signatures according to reference marks which are printed on the back fold of each section. 

Back To Back

Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper. 


That portion of the binding which connects the front of the book with the back of the book; also called “back.” 


The part of a photograph or illustration that appears behind the principal subject; the surface upon which the main image is superimposed. 


Any type that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite of italic type. 

Backstep Marks

Marks printed on signatures that indicate where the final fold will occur. When gathering and initial folding is completed, these marks appear as a stepped sequence. 


A term used to describe the aesthetic or harmony of elements on a page, whether they are photos, art or copy, within a layout or design. 


In an illustration, any line which encircles copy or dialogue. 

Bank Paper

A thin uncoated stock used for making carbon copies. 


The primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page. 

Base Line

This is a term used to describe the imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, punctuation points, etc. 

Basic Size

Refers to a standard size of paper stock even though the required size may be smaller or larger. 


A design school in Germany where the Sans Serif font was originated. 


The adjusting of type spacing in order to correct the line/paragraph justification. 


Various methods of securing folded sections of paper together and fastening them to a cover to form a book. 

Black Letter

An old style of typeface used in Germany in the 15th century; also referred to as Old English (US) and Gothic (UK). 


Printing an image that goes beyond the edge of the sheet after trimming 


Although seemingly dry, paper does contain approximately 5% moisture. In cases where there is excessive moisture and the paper is passed through a high heat-drying chamber, the moisture within the paper actually boils and causes a bubble or blistering effect. 

Block In

To sketch the primary areas and points of reference of an illustration in preparation for going to final design or production. 

Block Resistance

The resistance of coated papers to blocking. Reference: blocking. 


The adhesion of one coated sheet to another, causing paper tears or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper surface. 

Blocking Out

To mask a section of an art layout before reproduction. 


Any enlargement of photos, copies or line art. 


The main shank or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders and descenders; a term used to define the thickness or viscosity of printer’s ink. 

Body Size

The point size of a particular type character. 


Any type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous. 


A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 8.5”x11”


A printed work which contains more than 64 pages. 

Book Paper

A general classification of paper stock used to print books. 

Bounce 1

A registration problem, usually on copiers, where the image appears to bounce back and forth. A bounce usually occurs in one direction depending on how the paper is passing through the machine. 


A character ” }” used to group lines or phrases. 

Bristol Board

A board paper of various thickness having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing. 

Broad Fold

A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain. 


A pamphlet that is an informative document that can be folded or flat. 

Brownline Proof

A photographic proof made by exposing a flat to UV light creating a brown image on a white background. Also referred to as silverprint. 

Buckle Folder

A portion of the binding machinery having rollers that fold the paper. 


A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance. 



An abbreviation for the four primary colours used in four-colour process printing — cyan (a light blue), magenta (a pinkish purple), yellow and black. 


The measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or GSM (grams per square meter). 

Camera Ready

A term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction. 

Cap Line

An imaginary horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters. 

Caps & Lowercase

Instructions in the typesetting process that indicate the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and the rest of the letters in lower case. 

Caps & Small Caps

Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type, which is indicated by the use of a larger capital letter to start a sentence with the rest of the letters being in smaller capitals. 

Carbon Black

A pigment made of elemental carbon and ash. 

Case Binding

Books bound using hard board (case) covers. 

Chain Lines

Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of the papermaking machine. 


A term used to describe the quality of print on paper where the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks up the ink image creating loose pigment dust. 

Chancery Italic

A 13th century handwriting style which is the roots of italic design. 

Chrome Green

The resulting ink pigment attained from the mixture of chrome yellow and iron blue. 

Chrome Yellow

A lead chromate yellow ink pigment. 

Coated (Paper)

Paper coated with clay, white pigments and a binder. Better for printing because there is less picking.

Coated Art Paper

Printing papers used for printing projects that require a special treatment of detail and shading. 

Coated Stock

Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish. 

Cold Colour

Any colour that moves toward the blue side in the colour spectrum. 

Cold-Set Inks

A variety of inks that are in solid form originally but are melted in a hot press and then solidify when they contact paper. 


To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order. Reference: Gather. 

Collating Marks

Black step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets, to facilitate collating and checking of the sequence of book signatures. 


A printer’s or publisher’s identifying symbol or emblem. 

Colour Bars

This term refers to a colour test strip, which is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It is a standardized GATF (Graphic Arts Technical Foundation) process which allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration and dot gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar system designed to detect inking problems. 

Colour Separating

The processes of separating the primary colour components for printing. 

Colour Strength

A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an ink.

Colour Transparency

Transparent film containing a positive photographic colour image. 

Column Gutter

Space between two or more columns of type on one page. 

Commercial Register

Colour registration measured within plus or minus one row of dots. 


The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter for reproduction by printing. 

Condensed Type

A narrow, elongated type face. 

Continuous Tone

Image made of non-discernable picture elements which give appearance of continuous spectrum of grey values or tones. 


The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white. 


Refers to any typewritten material, art, photos, etc., to be used for the printing process. 

Corner Marks

Marks on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines or register indicators. 


A term describing a general category of papers used for the covers of books, pamphlets, etc. 


To eliminate a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks. 

Crop Mark

Markings at edges of original or on guide sheet to indicate the area desired in reproduction with negative or plate trimmed (cropped) at the markings. 


Elements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages (usually rules).


Marks of fine lines, which intersect to indicate accurate alignment of art elements. 


A term used to describe the effect of ink from an image, rule or line art on one printed page, which carries over to another page of a bound work.


Not lying flat and tending to form into cylindrical or wavy shapes. A term to describe the differences of either side of a sheet relative to coatings, absorbency, etc.; the concave side is the curl side. 


A term used in web press printing to describe the point at which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll; usually this dimension is equal to the circumference of the cylinder. 


Machine for accurately cutting stacks of paper to desired dimensions; can also be used to crease. Also trims out final bound books’ top size (soft cover). 

Cutting Die

Sharp edged device, usually made of steel, to cut paper, cardboard, etc., on a printing press. 


A shade of blue used in the four-colour process; it reflects blue and green and absorbs red. 



Dots Per Inch; the standard measurement of resolution for printers, photo type setting machines and graphics screens. The higher the value, the finer the detail of the finished print. 


An instruction given to remove an element from a layout. 


An optical device used by printers and photographers to measure and control the density of colour. 


The degree of tone, weight of darkness or colour within a photo or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer. Reference: densitometer. 


A term that describes that portion of lowercase letters which extends below the main body of the letter as in “p.” 


Design, letters or shapes cut into metal (mostly brass) for stamping book covers or embossing. An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design. 

Die Cutting

A method of using sharp steel-ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes (e.g. labels, boxes or image shapes) either post press or in line. The process of cutting paper in a shape or design by the use of a wooden die or block in which are positioned steel rules in the shape of the desired pattern. 

Die Stamping

An intaglio process for printing from images engraved into copper or steel plates. 

Digital Proof

Colour separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to colour photographic paper, creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed. 

Dimensional Stability

The qualities of paper to stabilize its original size when undergoing pressure or exposed to moisture. 

Display Type

Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page which attracts attention of the reader. 

Dog Ear

Occurs when you fold into a fold (such as a letter fold). At the side of one of the creases you get an indentation. It may look like a small inverted triangle. 


The smallest individual element of a halftone. 

Dot Gain

Darkening of halftone image due to ink absorption in paper causing halftone dots to enlarge. Terms to describe the occurrence whereby dots are printing larger than they should. 


A method used by ink makers to determine the colour, quality and tone of ink. It entails the drawing of a spatula over a drop of ink, spreading it flat over the paper. 


A term that describes any additives to ink which encourages the drying process. 


The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding. 

Drop Folio

Page number printed at foot of page. 

Drop Shadow

A shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the effect of the image lifting off the page. 

Dry Mount

Pasting with heat-sensitive adhesives. 

Dull Finish

Any matte-finished paper. 


A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp. 

Dummy Model

Resembling finished piece in every respect except that the pages and cover are blank, used by the designer as a final check on the appearance of the book as a guide for the size and position of elements on the jacket. 

Duplex Paper

Paper which has a different colour or finish on each side. 

Dye Sublimation

The process by which an image is printed onto a specially coated paper and from there transferred onto the final media (e.g. a piece of fabric) through the application of heat. 

Dye-Based Ink

Any ink that acquires its colour by the use of aniline pigments or dyes. Reference: aniline. 


Eggshell Finish

The finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. Reference: calendar rolls. 

Electronic Composition

The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter with graphic elements in page layout form in digital format for reproduction by printing

Elliptical Dot

Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones. 


A unit of measurement equaling 12 points or 4.5mm. 


A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry. 


To raise in relief a design or letters already printed on card stock or heavy paper by an uninked block or die. In rubber and plastic plate making the process is usually done by heat. 


A term that describes a glossy coating on paper. 


Attaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding. 

English Finish

A grade of uncoated book paper with a smooth uniform surface. 


A printing process whereby images such as copy or art are etched onto a plate. When ink is applied, these etched areas act as small wells to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is lifted out of the etched areas, creating raised images on the paper. 


The form used by the printer to calculate the project for the print buyer. This form contains the basic parameters of the project including size, quantity, colours, bleeds, photos, etc. 


One who computes or approximates the cost of work to be done. 


The process of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid. 

Even Smalls

The use of smaller-sized capitals at the beginning of a sentence without the use of larger-sized caps. 

Expanded Type

Type with width greater than normal producing a rectangular effect. 



A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering. 

Fan Fold

Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel. 

Fat Face

Type that is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide strokes. 

Felt Finish

The smoother side of paper, usually a soft weave pattern used for book papers. A soft weave pattern used for book papers. 

Filling In

A fault in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or halftone dot areas. 


The surface quality of paper. 

Finish (Paper)

Dull – (low gloss) also matte or matte gloss. 


The registration of items within a given page. 

Fluid Ink

Also called liquid ink; ink with a low viscosity. 

Flush Cover

A bound book or booklet having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text. 

Fogging Back

Lowering density of an image in a specific area usually to make type more legible while still letting image show through. 


Papers that have a surface resembling metal. 

Fold Marks

Markings at top edges that show where folds should occur. 


Machine used to fold signatures down into sections. 

Folio or Page Number

Numbering of a page at the top or bottom and either centered, flushed left or flushed right. 


The characters which make up a complete typeface and size. 


In binding, the process between folding sheets and casing in, such as rounding and backing, putting on headbands, reinforcing backs, etc. 

French Fold

A sheet of paper printed on one side and folded first vertically and then horizontally to produce a four-page folder where the printing is on the outside of the folds. 



Garbage In, Garbage Out. 


Group of frames or impositions in the same form of different jobs arranged and positioned to be printed together. 


The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper. 


To assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for binding. 


Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence. Reference: collating. 


Sticking on gold leaf to edges of books with a liquid agent and made permanent with burnishing tools.

Gloss Ink

Quick drying oil-based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock. 


A carved (as opposed to scripted) typeface. 


An orange-coloured paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials for exposure for platemaking. 

Graduated Screen

An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another. 


The direction of fibres in a sheet of paper; governs paper properties such as increased size changes with relative humidity. 

Grained Paper

A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather, alligator, wood, etc. 


A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process. 

Gripper Edge

The grippers of the printing press move the paper through the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet; this edge is the gripper edge. 


Space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge. The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book. 


Space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge. The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book. 

Hairline Register

Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers’ rules. 


Tone graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines, with equidistant centers. 

Hard Dot

The effect in a photograph where a dot has such a small degree of halation that the dot shows quite sharp. 

Head Margin

That space which lies between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.


colour separation process developed by Pantone. 


Imperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, trapping errors, etc.

High Bulk Paper

Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight. 

High Key Halftone

A halftone that is made utilizing only the highlight tones down through the middle tones. 

Highlight Dot

The highest density of a halftone image. 


The lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration. In the finished halftone, these highlights are represented by the finest dots. 


That space on the spine of a case bound book between the block of the book and the case binding. 

Hot Melt

An adhesive used in the binding process, which requires heat for application. 

House Sheet

This is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop. 



Inside back cover. 


Inside front cover. 

Image Area

That portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper. 


Arrangement of pages so that they print correctly on a press sheet and the pages are in proper order when the sheets are folded. 


Product resulting from one cycle of printing machine. The pressure of the image carrier, whether it be the type, plate or blanket, when it contacts the paper. 

Index Bristol

A relatively thick paper stock commonly measuring 572mm x 724mm. 


Markings pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp. 

Industrial Papers

A term used to denote papers such as janitorial, sanitary or heavy packing papers. 

Ink Mist

Any threads or filaments which protrude from the main printed letter body of long inks, as seen in newsprint. 

Ink Setting

The inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed. 


Extra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces. 


Extra blank pages inserted loosely into book after printing. 

Iridescent Paper

A coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl. 


Text that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward (leaning to the right). 



The paper cover of hardbound book, sometimes called the “dust cover.” 

Job Number

A number assigned to a printing project used for recordkeeping and job tracking. Also used to retrieve old jobs for reprints or reworking by customer. 


To vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are tightly aligned for final trimming. 


Vibrating, sloping platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper. 



The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page. 


The use of symbols, usually letters, to code copy that will appear on a dummy. 


Lines that are drawn on artwork that indicate the exact placement, shape and size of elements including halftones, illustrations, etc. 

Kiss Impression

A delicate printed impression, just heavy enough to be seen. 


coarse, unbleached paper used for printing and industrial products. 



A clear gloss coating applied to printed material for strength, appearance and protection. 

Laid Finish

A parallel lined paper that has a handmade look. 

Laser Engraving

A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper. The cutting is a result of the exposure of the paper to the laser ray, which actually evaporates the paper. 

Lay Edge

Edge of a sheet of paper being fed into a printing press. 


A rendition that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs, thumbnails, etc., of the final printed piece before it goes to print. 


The dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next. 


Space between lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline and the next. 


One of a number of folds (each containing two pages) which comprises a book or manuscript. 

Leaf Stamping

A metal die, either flat or embossed, created from the image or copy, which is then heated to a specific temperature which allows the transfer of a film of pigmented polyester to the paper. 

Ledger Paper

A stiff heavy business paper generally used for keeping records. 


The optimum length of a filament of ink. 


Printing that utilizes inked raised surfaces to create the image. 


The addition of space between typeset letters. 

Line Copy

Any copy that can be reproduced without the use of halftone screens. 


A paper that emulates the look and texture of linen cloth. 

Lithocoated Paper

A paper that is coated with a special water-resistant material which is able to withstand the lithographic process. 


The process of printing that utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images. 


M Weight

The actual weight of 1,000 sheets of any given size of paper. 

Machine Coated

Paper that has had a coating applied to either one or two of its sides during the papermaking process. 

Machine Direction

An alternate term for grain direction. Reference: grain. 


Imprinted space around the edge of a page. 

Mark Up

To write up instructions, as on a proof sheet. 

Matte Finish

A coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring. Reference: calendaring. 


The width of type as measured in picas. Reference: picas. 


A term used to describe finished artwork that is camera ready for reproduction, including all type, photos, illustrations, etc. 

Midtone Dot

Commonly taken as the area between the highlight and shadow areas of a subject’s face in halftone image. 


An undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens. 

Molybdate Orange

An ink pigment made from precipitating lead molybdate, lead sulfate and lead chromate. 


A term used to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption. 


Coarse muslin glue placed on the back of book or pads for strengthening. 

Mullen Testing

A specific test of tensile paper strength, an important factor if web presses are used for printing. 



A term to describe papers that have a colour similar to that of wood; also called cream, off-white or ivory. 


Film that contains the same images as the original print, except that all colours and shades are reversed. Reference: positive. 


A light, low-cost groundwood paper made especially for newspapers. Reference: groundwood. 

Nominal Weight

When the basis weight of paper differs from the actual weight, the term nominal weight is used. 


OA of Register

When two-sheet passes on a press are misaligned. 


Outside back cover. 


Outside front cover. 


The most commonly used printing method, whereby the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket which receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper. 

Offset Gravure

A complex offset process involving multiple transfers between the gravure plate, the plate cylinder, and a solid rubber plate. 

Offset Paper

A term for uncoated book paper. 


A light bond paper used for typing and used with carbon paper because of its thinness. 


Quality of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through. 


A quality of paper that allows relatively little light to pass through. 

Opaque Ink

Ink that completely covers any ink under itself. 


Any light-sensitive surfaces that are not sensitive to red. 

Overhang Cover

A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains. 


A transparent sheet placed over artwork, in register with the work it covers; this is used to call out other colour components of the work, instructions or corrections. 

Overlay Proof

A process of proof making whereby the colour separations are individually exposed to light sensitive film. This film is then set in registration with a piece of white paper in the background. 


Any printing that is done on an area that has already been printed. 


Surplus of copies printed. 


Type that is set in excess of the allotted space. 



Photomechanical transfer. 


Pixels per inch. 


One side of a leaf. 

Page Makeup

The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page

Page Proofs

Proofs made up from pages. 


Films or other photographic materials sensitive to all colours. 


Any paper with a thickness (caliper) of 12 points (.3mm) or more. 


A hard finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand. 

Parent Sheet

A sheet that is larger than the cut stock of the same paper. 

Perf Marks

Markings usually dotted lines at edges showing where perforations should occur. 


A term used to describe the binding process where the signatures of a book are held together by a flexible adhesive. 

Perfect Binding

Binding process where backs of sections are cut off, roughened and glued together, and rung in a cover. 


Printing both sides of the paper (or other material) on the same pass through the printing machine. 

Perfecting Press

A printing press that prints on both sides of the page in a single pass. 


Punching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper or cardboard to facilitate tearing along a desired line. 


The main pigment in the manufacture of cyan ink. 


Standard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points, 72 points = 1 inch 


When the tack of ink is stronger than the surface strength of the paper, some lifting of the paper surface occurs; this is referred to as picking. Or, an occurrence in printing whereby the tack of ink pulls fibres or coating off the paper surface, leaving spots on the printed surface. 


A build-up of pigment or paper coatings onto the plate, blankets or rollers. 

Plastic Comb

A method of binding books whereby holes are drilled on the side closest to the spine and a plastic grasping device is inserted to hold the pages together. 


A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch. 


Film that contains an image with the same tonal values as the original; opposite of a negative. 


Any paper that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer. 

Primary Colours

In printing the four primary colours are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black. 

Print Ready

See Camera Ready 


The ability of a paper to show reproduced (printed) images. 

Printers Pairs

Two consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature. 

Process Inks

Printing inks, usually in sets of four colours. The most frequent combination is yellow, magenta, cyan and black, which are printed one over another in that order to obtain a coloured print with the desired hues, whites, blacks and greys. 


An impression of composed type and illustrations made for the purpose of checking the accuracy of the layout, type and colour 

Pull for Position

Guide sheet for the positioning of type, blocks, etc. 


Ragged Left

The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left. 

Ragged Right

The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right. 

Readers Pairs

Two consecutive pages as they appear in a printed piece. 


500 sheets of paper. 


The odd numbered pages (right hand side) of books. 


The master roll of paper as it comes off the papermaking machine. It is in its original width and is then cut into smaller rolls. 


The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other. 

Register Marks

Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration. 


Art files with clear, crisp images that do not produce blurry, bitmapped, or pixelated print. 

Right Angle Fold

A term that denotes folds that are 90 degrees to each other. 

Roll To Roll

A web press printing process where the roll of paper is printed and stored on a roll to be shipped. 

Rub Proof

That stage of printed ink where the maximum dryness is achieved and the ink will not smudge. 


A term used to describe how well a paper runs on a printing press. 


A term given to text that that is adjusted fit around a photograph or illustration. 

Running Head

A title at the top of a page that appears on all pages of a book or chapter of a book. 


Saddle Stitching

Stitching where wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center. Only used with folded sections, either single sections or two or more sections inserted to form a single section. 

Safety Paper

A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with easily. 

Safe Zone

Sufficient space between the text and the edge of the final trim sheet 

Satin Finish

A smooth, delicately embossed finished paper with sheen. 


The enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area. 


Impressions or cuts in flat material to facilitate bending or tearing. 


Unwanted ink marks in the non-image area. 


A cover made from the same paper stock as the internal sheets. 

Shadow Dot

The lowest density of a halftone image. 


To decrease the dot size of the halftone which in turn decreases the colour strength. 


The printing of two different images on two different sides of a sheet of paper by turning the page over after the first side is printed and using the same gripper and side guides.

Show Through

A problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side. 

Side Stitching

Stitching where the wire staples pass through the pile of sections or leaves gathered upon each other and are clinched on the underside. 

Signature (Section)

A group of pages that, having been printed together on one large sheet of paper, are folded, cut and bound, along with the book’s other signatures, into a book. 

Silhouette Halftone

A halftone with the background screen removed. 


Reference: brownline proof. 


That quality of paper defined by its levelness which allows for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity of print. 

Soft Dot

An excessively large halo around a dot in a photograph that causes a fringe that diminishes the dot intensity. 


Back edge of a book. 

Spiral Bind

A binding whereby a wire of metal or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side. 

Spot Colour

Small area printed in a second colour. 


To bind a series of pages with wire staples such that the staples enter from the front and back simultaneously with neither side being long enough to exit the opposite side. 

Star Target

The Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GATF) has established various quality control images; the star target appears along with the colour bar and helps the pressman detect any irregularity in the ink spread. Reference: Colour bars. 

Static Neutraliser

A device on a printing press that minimizes the amount of static buildup on paper as it passes through the press. 

Step and Repeat

A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout. 


A proofreader’s symbol that is usually written in the copy margin. It indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction, should be left as it was. 


A term for unprinted paper or other material to be printed. 

Stumping or Blocking

Impressing book covers, etc., by means of hot die, brass types or blocks. 

Synthetic Papers

Any petroleum-based waterproof papers with a high tensile strength. 



1) The main body matter of a page as opposed to any headlines or captions; 2) A type of high quality printing paper. 


A dense, strong paper stock. 

Tensile Strength

A paper’s ability to withstand pressure. 


1) The main body matter of a page as opposed to any headlines or captions; 2) A type of high quality printing paper. 


A printing process whereby slow drying ink is applied to paper and while the ink is still wet, is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface. 

Ticket Envelope

Envelopes used mostly for holding theater tickets. 


A halftone screen that contains all the same sized dots. 


The rough surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique. 


Inks that do not block out the coloured inks that they print over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate colours. 

Trim Marks

Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page. 


The difference in feel and appearance of either side of a sheet of paper due to the papermaking process having a felt and wire side. 



Papers that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring process. 


A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc. 


A term given to books bound on the longer dimension. 



Brown print. 


A clear shiny ink used to add gloss to printed pieces. The primary component of the ink vehicle. Reference: vehicle. 


A combination of varnish, waxes, dryers, etc., which contains the pigment of inks and control the flow, the drying and the adhesion of the pigments to the printed surface. 


A finish of paper that is rough and bulky, and has a degree of tooth. 

Velour Paper

A term given to papers that are coated with an adhesive and then flock dusted. 


A term given to the left-hand or even-numbered pages of a book. 


Fade to white or a small decorative design or illustration. A photo or illustration in which the tones fade gradually away until they blend with the surface they are printed on. 



An abbreviation for work and back. Reference: sheetwise. 


An abbreviation for work and turn. 


A term given to the occurrence of plate deterioration of the image area during the printing process; usually occurs on long runs. 


A translucent logo that is embossed during the papermaking process while the paper slurry is on the dandy roll. Reference: dandy roll. 


The roll of paper that is used in web or rotary printing. 

Web Break

A tear in a web roll during the printing process. 

Web Press

Cylinder printing machine in which the paper is fed from a continuous reel, as opposed to sheet fed. 

Web Tension

The term given to the tension or pull exerted by the web press on the web roll. 

Wedding Paper

A soft paper that is thick and holds up well under embossing. 


A single word or two left at the end of a paragraph, or a part of a sentence ending a paragraph, which loops over to the next page and stands alone. Also, the last sentence of a paragraph which contains only one or two short words. 

Wire Side

That side of the paper which lies on the wire screen side of the papermaking machine. 

Wire Stitching or Stapling

To fasten together sheets, signatures or sections with wire staples; methods include saddle stitching, side stitching and stabbing. 


A smooth paper made on finely textured wire that gives the paper a gentle patterned finish. 


The unevenly dried surface of printed inks. 

Writing Paper

Another name for bond paper. 


Xerographic Paper

Papers made to work well in copy machines and laser printers.